Hebrews and James, Reformation Style: a book review

Until now, I had not read any of the commentaries in the IVP Reformation Commentary on Scripture series. My interest in the theological interpretation and historical theology usually drives me to a much earlier era. I love the Desert Fathers and patristics and have spent some time with the Ancient Christian Commentary series.  However, my interest was piqued by the lastest Reformation Commentary volume, edited by Roland Rittgers, in part because of the celebration of the Reformation’s quincentennial, and partly because volume XIII, examines the books of Hebrews and James.

2976I love these two epistles, yet Martin Luther had a lower estimation of them.  Luther liked Hebrews, though he did not place it on the same footing with apostolic teaching (3). He regarded it as a non-Pauline epistle, but he did think the author of Hebrews was at least a disciple of the Apostles, and Luther’s lectures on Hebrews (1517-1518), influenced and impacted his maturing Reformation theology (pp. xliii-xliv). James, on the other hand, he regarded as an epistle of straw, “with nothing of the nature of the gospel about it” (200). Despite Luther’s opinion of these books, other Reformers were more charitable in their assessments, many regarding the former as Pauline, and the latter as apostolic and authoritative.

The Reformation Commentary on Scripture follows much the same format as the Ancient Christian Commentary does. Each book is broken up into sections by pericope, with verse by verse (or paragraph by paragraph) commentary drawn from the writings of various reformers. The first thing I noticed was the breadth of voices which Rittgers includes. There were Catholic reformers and Christian humanists, (e.g. Gasparo Contarini, Desiderius Erasmus, Thomas More), Lutherans, Calvinists (e.g. John Calvin, Theodore Beza), Swiss Reformed (e.g., Heinrich Bullinger, Huldrych Zwingli) Anglicans, Puritans, and Radical Reformers (e.g. Menno Simons, Dirk Philips, Melchoir Hoffman).  Jacobus Arminius provides a counter-voice to some of the hardline Calvinist comments on Hebrews. Given the era, the voices included were mostly male, though Rittgers does include a sole entry from Marguerite of Navarre (104-105).  Some of these commentators were familiar to me. Many were not. There is an appendix with “Biographical Sketches or Reformation-Era Figures and Works” which profiles most of the references included here (though curiously doesn’t profile Edward Dering, who comments extensively on Hebrews but lucky for me there is Wikipedia).

Often the differences of opinion between the Reformers fall predictably along the hardened denominational lines of latter days. The Reformers wrestled with Hebrew’s apparent teaching that we can lose our salvation. Anabaptist commentators like Derek spoke forcibly of the forcibly of the need for excommunicating false believers (82). The Protestants loved what Hebrews says about the supremacy of Christ, but went to great pains to show, against Catholic sacramental theology, that Christ is not sacrificed again in the mass, but once alone for our sin (see, for example, Johannes Bugenhagen’s comments on Heb 9:11-12. p 125). In dealing with James, Lutherans, in general, were less sunny toward the epistle as Luther had been, whereas magisterial Reformers, and Anglicans regarded it much more favorably.

I read through this commentary in about a week’s time. There is enough here that is devotional. The Reformers read the Bible with an eye toward what it meant in life. Their comments are pre-critical in the sense that they do not occupy themselves with sources, literary form or the text’s setting in life. They are much more concerned about explicating what the implications of these epistles are for the lives of the faithful. This isn’t to say that they were unaware of debates about issues like authorship, but their answers were meant to either give weight to either the text or their critique of the epistles’ theology. As theological interpreters, they read the Bible in a Christocentric way.  Hebrews especially send the Reformers back over the Old Testament, looking for the ways the Hebrew Bible testifies of Christ. James’ critique of favoritism and partiality toward the rich, mirrored the era’s critique of corruption in the Church.They were serious readers. They engaged the words on the page.

It is fruitful to read commentaries from people outside of our own era. The sixteenth-century Reformers had their own blind spots and weren’t privy to some of the critical insights we have today. Yet their God-focused, Christ-centered interpretative tradition shaped our theological traditions. Rittgers has compiled an accessible entry point into their theology. I give this commentary four stars. – ★★★★

Notice of material connection: I received a copy of this book from IVP Academic in exchange for my honest review.

The Book of Hebrews is Not Uncharted Territory: a book review

No one knows who wrote the book of Hebrews (though everybody has a theory). It is tucked into the New Testament behind Paul’s epistles but it is unclear what its relationship to Paul is.  Hebrews is a complicated book full of theological insights. In its pages, the author expounds a high Christology which pictures Jesus as: above the Angels, the great high priest in the order of Melchizedek, our mediator and our sacrifice. He also issues warnings and exhorts his recipients to remain faithful. Hebrews describes in vivid detail how Jesus Christ fulfills Israel’s hopes and expectations. This is an important book; yet outside the ‘hall of faith’ chapter (Heb. 11), many find the book’s message difficult to understand and grapple with. In part, this is due to a widespread ignorance of the Old Testament (which Hebrews’ quotes through out), but there is also just a lot to grapple with in the text.

Charts on the Book of Hebrews by Herbert W. Bateman IV

Herbert W Bateman IV has done the church and academy a service in summarizing the contents of Hebrews and the scholarly conversation on its contents. Charts on the Book of Hebrews provides a comprehensive outlook on Hebrews. One-hundred-and-four charts (or tables) provide windows for understanding the text.  In four sections, Bateman maps out the scholarly debate on authorship, reception, genre and structure of Hebrews (part 1), the Old Testament and Second Temple allusions (part 2), the theology of Hebrews (i.e. God, Christology, and important themes) (part 3), and exegetical issues (part 4). These tables give an overview of  the book and some of the interpretive issues various commentators have faced.

While Bateman is theologically conservative (as am I) and a dispensationalist (which I’m not), the main value of this book is descriptive.  Bateman’s charts survey the literature on Hebrews and describe the various scholarly and historic opinions on its interpretation. They also parse exegetical data (i.e. repeated motifs, important words, Old Testament and Second Temple Era allusions, etc.). Regardless of your theological persuasion, you are bound to find these charts helpful in illuminating the text.

I plan to make good use of this book the next time I’m preaching and teaching on Hebrews. Most of the information in this book, I would expect to find in a good critical commentary, but the fact that Bateman collects and presents through this text (rather than exegeting and interpreting) means that the value of this book is way it aids the reader in their own exegesis and understanding of the text.  Information about structure, genre, authorship, the theological content, Old Testament allusions, textual issues, etc., are labeled and organized. This makes this book a great reference for digging into the text (as opposed to being spoon-fed one commentator’s informed opinion).  Certainly I will be checking commentaries too, but these charts will provide a good first step. This is a tool worth using.

I especially appreciated Bateman’s summary of  historic approaches to authorship, destination and the structure of Hebrews (part 1), and the vivid way his charts illustrate the portrait of Christ that emerges in Hebrews (part 3).  I have no idea if this book on Hebrews is indicative of the quality of the rest of the Kregel Charts of the Bible series.  If it is, then I commend the whole series. I happily give this book 5 stars and think it will be a useful resource for understanding and exegeting Hebrews. I recommend it to anyone planning to preach and teach from the text and to those who just want a deeper understanding of this important book. ★★★★★

Thank you to Kregel Academic for providing me a copy of this book in exchange for my honest review.